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FACTS AND FORMULAS

Volume calculations
  Length x width x average depth x 7.5 = volume (in gallons) of square or rectangular pool
  3.14 (pi) x radius squared x average depth x 7.5 = volume (in gallons) of a round pool
  0.45 x (A+B) x length x average depth x 7.5 = volume (in gallons) of kidney or irregular-shaped pool

Negative Edge Basin Sizing
  Basin Width= square root of (.25 X Area of the pool / Length of the weir wall)
  Basin Depth= Basin Width + 1.75’

Measurements
  7.5 gallons in each cubic foot of water
  1 inch = 0.0833 feet
  Radius = diameter divided by 2
  1 gallon of water weighs 8.3 pounds
  1 gallon of chlorine weighs 10 pounds
  16 ounces dry weight = 1 pound dry weight
  128 ounces liquid = 1 gallon
  8 ounces liquid = 1 cup liquid
  100 watts = 1 kilowatt
  1 milliamp = 0.001 amp (30 milliamps will cause muscle contractions)
  1 psi = 2.31 feet of head (resistance)
  1 psi - 28 inches water column pressure (WCP)
  1 inch of mercury = 1.13 feet of head
  1 micron = one-millionth of 1 meter = 0.0000394 inches (the human eye can detect objects a small as 35 microns)
  1 grain of table salt = 100 microns
  3/4 volt of 1 volt = 750 millivolts = 0.75 volts
  1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1°F
  1 therm (measurement of gas supply) = 100,000 BTU per hour
  1 gallon of fuel oil = 140,000 BTU
  1 kilowatt = 3412 BTU
  1 gallon of fuel oil = 140,000 BTU
  1 ton (heat pump rating) = 15,000 BTU
  A typical bather displaces 2 cubit feet of water
  1 gallon of fuel oil = 140,000 BTU
  1 hp = 746 watts

Chlorine Comparison Chart
Product Form PH Stability Available Chlorine Common
C12 gas Low 100% Gas very unstable
Sodium hypochlorite 13+ 12.5% Liquid unstable
Calcium hypochlorite 11.5 65% Dry granular stable
Dichlor 6.8 60% Dry granular very stable
Trichlor 3.0 90% Tablet (or granular) very very stable

Effectiveness Comparison
  1 pound C12 gas = 1 gallon sodium hypochlorite = 1.5 pounds calcium
  Hypochlorite = 1.75 pounds dichlor = 1.15 pounds trichlor = 2.8 pounds lithium hypochlorite

Cost Comparison
  Sodium hypochlorite = 2 times the cost of chlorine gas
  Sodium hypochlorite = 2 times the cost of chlorine gas
  Calcium hypochlorite = 3 times the cost of chlorine gas
  Dichlor = 5 times the cost of chlorine gas
  Trichlor = 3 times the cost of chlorine gas
  Lithium = 5 times the cost of chlorine gas

95% of chlorine in water can be lost on a sunny day in two hours (without stabilizer).

Amount of product required to obtain a change in 1000 Gallons of Water
Item Raise or Lower 10 ppm Product
Product Amount Required (dry weight unless otherwise noted)
Calcium hardness Raise Calcium Chloride 2 ounces
Total Alkalinity Raise Bicarb of Soda 2.5 ounces
Total Alkalinity Lower Sodium Bisulfate (dry acid) 2.5 ounces
Total Alkalinity Lower Muriatic Acid 1/4 Cup (Liquid)
Stabilizer Raise Cyanuric Acid 1.5 ounces

Amount of chlorine needed to raise residual in 1000 Gallons of water by 1 ppm (multiply results by 30 for super chlorination procedures).
Availability of Product (Percent) Product Amount
12 1/8 Cup (Liquid)
50 1/4 Ounce (dry weight)
80 1/6 Ounce (dry weight)

Standards
  Water may not move at more than 8’ per second through copper pipe.
  Water may not move at more than 7’ per second through PVC (Some pipe manufacturers will not warranty over 5’ per second do to concerns over water hammer.)
  Water may not move at more than 6’ per second through any type of suction pipe.

Conversion Table
Gallons to Liters     Gallons x 3.785 = Liters
Liters to Gallons     Liters x 0.2642 = Gallons
Ounces to Milliliters     Ounces x 29.57 = Milliliters
Milliliters to Ounces     Milliliter x 0.0338 = Ounces
Inches to Millimeters     Inches x 25.4 = Millimeters

Data
  Normal rotation speed of a pump motor is 3450 rpm (revolutions per minute). On two-speed pumps, the low speed rotates at 1750 rpm.
  Alternating current (ac) in the United States runs on 60 hertz (cycles). In Europe and many other foreign countries, it runs at 50 hertz.
  PVC plumbing is designed to carry water at temperature of less than 100°F
  CPVC plumbing is designed to carry water at temperatures above 100°F.
  Head created by various plumbing and equipment components:
 
  A 1-1/2” x 90° elbow = 7.5 feet of straight 1-1/2” pipe
  A 2” x 90° elbow = 8.6 feet of straight 2” pipe
  A 1-1/2” x 45°elbow = 2.2 feet of straight 1-1/2” pipe
  A 2” x 45° elbow = 2.8 feet of straight 2” pipe
  Filters create 5 to 7 feet of head
  Heaters create 8 to 15 feet of head
  Sand filters strain particles as small as 60 microns
  Cartridge filters strain particles as small as 20 microns
  DE filters strain particles as small as 7 microns
  A 1 pound coffee can holds 1/2 pound of DE
  1 pound of DE will coat 10 square feet of filter grid area.
  Sand filters are designed to use #20 silica sand
  Electricity supplied to an electronic ignition pilot is 10,000 to 20,000 volts
  The chemical processes when chlorine (in any form) is added to water

C12 (chlorine) + H2O (water = HC1 (muriatic acid) +HOCI (hypochlorous acid)

HOC1 = H+ + OC1-2 (a positive ion of hydrogen and a negative ion of hypochlorite)

At pH 7.2 = 80% killing HOC1 +20% useless OC1

At pH 8.0 = 20% killing HOC1 + 80% useless OC1

  Urine and perspiration = ammonia
  One active swimmer produces approximately 1 quart of ammonia per hour
  Liquid chlorine is sold in a solution of 10 to 15 percent strength
  Pools must turn over in 6 hours
  Spas must turn over in 1/2 hour
  Wading pools must turn over in 1 hour

Filtration Standards
Filter Style Maximum Flow (gpm/sq. ft.)
Minimum Backwash Flow (gpm/sq.ft.)
High-rate sand 15 15
DE 2 2
Cartridge 0.375* No Backwash

*Note that cartridge filters are rated at 1 gpm/square foot maximum flow rate on most residential applications and the more stringent 0.375 gpm/square foot on commercial installations

  Rapid sand filters are designed for flow rates of less than 3 gpm
  High-rate sand filters are designed for flow rates of 5 to 20 gpm
  High-rate sand filters are designed for flow rates of 5 to 20 gpm
  The normal filter operating pressure differential (between incoming pipe and outgoing) is between 2 and 4 psi. When it reaches 10 psi, the filter must be cleaned. Expressed another way, if you know the normal operating pressure of your filter (as observed on the pressure gauge), you must clean the filter when the pressure is more than 10 psi higher.
  Water flow must not exceed 100 gpm through 1-1/2” heater plumbing
  Water flow must not exceed 125 gpm through 2” heater plumbing
  Water flowing out of a heater should not be more than 10°F warmer than the water flowing into the heater
  Pool water should not exceed 82°F
  Spa water should not exceed 104°F
  The on/off switch of a millivolt heater must not be located more than 20’ from the heater

Heater Installations
  The rear and non-plumbed sides must have a least 6” of clearance
  The plumbed side must have a least 18” of clearance
  The front must have at least 24” of clearance
  The top must be at least 5 feet below (and 4 feet horizontal distance) any window, door or vent
  PVC gas lines must be buried at least 18” below ground (12 inches below concrete)
  Metal gas lines must be buried at least 12” below ground (6 inches below concrete)

Recreational Water Chemistry Parameters
Chlorine Residual     1.0 to 3.0 ppm
Total Alkalinity     80 to 150 ppm
pH     7.4 to 7.6
Hardness     200 to 400 ppm
Total Dissolved Solids     Less than 2000 ppm
Cyanuric Acid     30 to 80 ppm

FORMULAS
  75% of the surface area of a pool is the required surface area of solar panels to adequately heat the pool
  Each spa jet requires flow of 15 gpm
  Each spa jet requires 1/4 hp from the pump and motor
  To estimate the horsepower of a blower:
 
  1 hp = 6.5 amps at 110 volts = 3.25 amps at 220 volts
  2 hp = 13 amps at 110 volts = 6.5 amps at 220 volts
  Volts x amps = watts
  Heater BTU output rating divided by (gallons x 8.33) = degrees temperature rise/hour
  Breakpoint chlorination method (for every 20,000 gallons of water):
 
  1 gallon of anhydrous ammonia + 8 gallons liquid chlorine
  Leak water loss conversion inches to gallons
 
  Water loss in inches x (Surface Area divided by 100) x 62.5 = loss
Contact Technical Support at Paramount Pool and Spa Products at 800-621-5886 or jserkland@1paramount.com to get more help
 
295 East Corporate Place, Suite 100  Chandler, AZ 85225 | Toll Free 1.800.621.5886 | Phone: 480.893.7607
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